Second generation problems in schooling: Lessons from Mizoram

By: V Santhakumar

Mizoram is one of the states in India which has been successful in bringing almost all children to at least the primary school and ensuring reasonably adequate infrastructure and other facilities for school education at a reasonable distance for most inhabitations2. This has been possible through the governmental efforts to provide schooling and the social changes which created the demand for schooling. However, the state seems to be facing second-generation problem regarding `schooling for all’. These include the (lower) quality of education; the growing demand for private schools in localities where there already are government schools, and; the difficulty in retaining children in higher (secondary and higher secondary) grades. It is interesting to learn about these new challenges in Mizoram, which has achieved primary schooling for all ahead of the other states. This paper discusses some of these second- generation problems associated with universal schooling in Mizoram. This paper is based on a short-period field study conducted in five locations (rural and urban) in Mizoram during which we visited government, Church-managed and private schools and had discussions with teachers and parents.

Full paper can be read here:

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